Zasada nieagresji (KWDL #2)

Każda filozofia polityczna odpowiedzieć musi na dwa fundamentalne pytania:
(1) Pytanie o zasady regulujące stosowanie przemocy między jednostkami – komu, w jakich okolicznościach i na jakich zasadach wolno stosować przemoc fizyczną?
(2) Pytanie o zasady korzystania z zasobów – kto, w jakim zakresie i na jakich zasadach ma prawo kontrolować zasoby znajdujące się na danym obszarze?
Libertariańską teorię moralną podzielić można na dwa obszary, będące odpowiedziami na te podstawowe pytania. Zasada nieagresji określa, kiedy w relacjach międzyludzkich wolno używać przemocy fizycznej, libertariańska teoria własności wyjaśnia, w jaki sposób można prawomocnie wejść w posiadanie własności prywatnej i jakie prawa przysługują osobie, która zdobyła prawomocny tytuł własności do jakiegoś dobra.
(Można by wyróżnić tu trzeci obszar – libertariańską teorię kary – wydaje się jednak, że teoria ta jest jedynie rozwinięciem czy doprecyzowaniem zasady nieagresji).

Zasada nieagresji
Libertarianie wierzą, że każda jednostka ma prawo w dowolny sposób dysponować swoim ciałem i swoją prawomocnie zdobytą własnością, jeżeli swym działaniem nie narusza analogicznego prawa innych jednostek. Prawo jednostki do dowolnego (nieagresywnego) zarządzania swoim ciałem i własnością wyraża się w teorii libertariańskiej najczęściej za pomocą zasady nieagresji (non-agression principle, NAP). Zasada nieagresji wyrażana była na wiele sposobów, ja najbardziej przywiązany jestem do jej następującej (zaproponowanej przez Murraya Rothbarda) wersji:

Nikt nie ma prawa inicjować przemocy względem drugiej osoby lub jej własności.

Zdaję sobie sprawę z pewnej niezręczności stylistycznej związanej z określeniem „inicjowanie przemocy względem własności”, jest jednak niezwykle ważne, by pamiętać, że przemoc dotyczyć może tak samo ciała drugiej osoby, jak i jej własności.
Ponieważ zasada ta pełni centralną rolę w libertariańskiej filozofii politycznej, spróbuję, słowo po słowie, wyjaśnić, w jaki sposób należy ją rozumieć. Wiele nieporozumień związanych z libertarianizmem bierze się bowiem z jej niewłaściwego interpretowania.

Czym jest przemoc?
Kluczowe dla właściwego zinterpretowania zasady nieagresji jest określenie, w jaki sposób libertarianie rozumieją przemoc. Przemoc – w ujęciu libertariańskim – zdefiniować można jako wszelkie działania, które powodują naruszenie integralności czyjegoś ciała lub czyjejś własności bądź uniemożliwiają drugiej osobie dowolne korzystania z jej ciała lub własności. Ktoś, kto jest poddawany przemocy, nie może w pełni kontrolować tego, co dzieje się z jego ciałem i własnością, gdyż kontrolę tę w jakimś zakresie sprawuje jakaś osoba trzecia. Za przykłady przemocy uznać należy m.in. bicie; ranienie; gwałcenie; mordowanie; emitowanie szkodliwych czy niechcianych substancji, których działaniu poddana jest druga osoba; zmuszanie drugiej osoby do robienia rzeczy, których nie chce ona robić; zabranianie drugiej osobie robienia rzeczy, które chce robić; kradzież; niszczenie czyjejś własności; użytkowanie czyjejś własności bez zgody właściciela.

Libertariańskie rozumienie przemocy obejmuje również:
(a) Niedotrzymywanie ustaleń kontraktów – ponieważ kontrakty związane są z przeniesieniem tytułu własności do jakichś dóbr, niedotrzymanie ustaleń kontraktu oznacza próbę zarządzania dobrem, które przynależy się stronie, która zdobyła do niego prawo własności. Dlatego złamanie zasad kontraktu jest więc formą kradzieży. Przykładowo, jeśli podpisałem z tobą kontrakt, że jeśli wykonasz jakaś pracę, ja zapłacę ci określoną sumę pieniędzy, gdy ty wykonasz tę pracę, suma ta automatycznie stanie się twoją własnością – jeżeli nie będę chciał ci jej przekazać, oznaczać będzie to, że nielegalnie przetrzymuje twoją własność, a więc jestem złodziejem.
(b) Groźby użycia przemocy – gdyż grożenie komuś przemocą uznać można za sygnał rozpoczęcia tej przemocy (jeśli ktoś mówi „Zabiję cię!”, mamy prawo uznać, że rozpoczął działania, których celem jest zabicie nas, na tej samej zasadzie, na jakiej mamy prawo bronić się, gdy ktoś celuje do nas z pistoletu, ale jeszcze nie oddał strzału).

Pamiętać należy, że by jakieś działanie uznane mogło zostać przez libertarian za formę przemocy, spełniać musi dwa warunki – musi mieć charakter materialny (musi być formą materialnej ingerencji w ciało/własność drugiej osoby) i musi zawierać w sobie element niedobrowolności (nie jest przemocą to, na co druga osoba wyraziła zgodę). Za przemoc nie można uznać więc:
(a) Tak zwanej przemocy językowej (np. obrażania czy pomawiania innych osób) – nie ma ona bowiem formy materialnej, ale symboliczną/tekstową.
(b) Naruszania praw związanych z własnością intelektualną (a więc kopiowania i rozpowszechniania informacji stworzonych przez inne osoby) – osoba, która kopiuje i rozpowszechnia jakieś informacje, nie uniemożliwia bowiem autorowi tych informacji sprawowania pełnej kontroli nad jego ciałem i jego własnością.
(c) Tak zwanej przemocy ekonomicznej, np. zatrudniania osób za kwoty, które osoba ta uznaje niewspółmiernie niskie do wartości wykonywanej przez nią pracy. Związane jest to z faktem, że relacje takie mają charakter dobrowolny. Nawet jeśli pracownik czuje się zmuszony do podpisania niekorzystnej w jego mniemaniu umowy, tym, kto go „zmusza”, nie jest pracodawca, ale, co najwyżej, trudna sytuacja ekonomiczna , w jakiej się znalazł (oczywiście bardzo często bywa tak, że pracownicy znaleźli się w trudnej sytuacji ekonomicznej, nie z „obiektywnych” względów, ale w wyniku inicjacji przemocy – np. chłopi, którzy pozbawieni zostali możliwości zawłaszczania ziemi, nie mieli szansy utrzymać się w inny sposób i zmuszeni byli najmować się do pracy za niskie stawi. Jednak w takiej sytuacji inicjację przemocy stanowi nie sam fakt złożenia propozycji pracy, ale uniemożliwianie zawłaszczania ziemi).
Działania te z moralnego punktu widzenia można oceniać różnie (wielu libertarian ocenia je negatywnie), ponieważ nie stanowią one inicjacji przemocy, nie wolno stosować przemocy w odpowiedzi na nie.

Libertarianizm nie jest pacyfizmem
Zasada nieagresji nie mówi, że przemocy nie wolno stosować, a jedynie, że nie wolno jej inicjować. Mamy prawo stosować przemoc, by bronić się przed inicjacją przemocy ze strony innych osób. Libertarianizm nie jest odmianą pacyfizmu, nie wymaga wyrzeczenia się przemocy fizycznej. Przeciwnie, jeśli ktoś nas atakuje czy okrada, mamy pełne prawo bronić się, próbować odzyskać skradzioną własność lub uzyskać odszkodowanie za poniesione straty. Odróżnić należy więc przemoc agresywną (agresję), której celem jest podporządkowanie sobie innych ludzi, od przemocy obronnej, której celem jest ochrona przed agresją. W tej drugiej nie ma niczego złego i choć z pewnością, świat byłby lepszy, gdybyśmy nie musieli jej stosować, jest ona zjawiskiem naturalnym i moralnym.

Jest istotne, by pamiętać, że fakt, iż ktoś zainicjował względem nas przemoc, nie daje nam prawa, by stosować względem niego dowolną ilość przemocy. Przykładowo, to, że ktoś potrącił nas na ulicy i wytrącił nam z ręki kawę, nie daje nam prawa zabicia tej osoby i argumentowania, że nie zainicjowaliśmy przemocy, a jedynie odpowiadaliśmy przemocą na przemoc. Broniąc się przed przemocą ze strony innych, musimy dbać o to, by stosowana przez nas przemoc była adekwatna do przemocy stosowanej przez napastnika. Istnieje więc punkt, w którym przemoc obronna może stać się przemocą agresywną, moment, w którym ofiara przestaje się bronić, a staje się napastnikiem.

Uniwersalność zasady nieagresji
Szczególny nacisk przy omawianiu zasady nieagresji położony powinien być na słowo nikt, które wskazuje, że ma ona charakter uniwersalny, odnosi się do wszystkich ludzi. Istotą rewolucji w myśleniu, którą proponuje libertarianizm, jest wskazanie, że te same zasady moralne powinny być stosowane do oceny działań nie tylko zwykłych obywateli, ale także do państwa i jego przedstawicieli (państwa zarówno autorytarnego, rządzonego przez wąską grupę ludzi, jak i demokratycznego, którego działania są – jak się twierdzi – realizacją woli społeczeństwa). Większość filozofii politycznych (świadomie bądź nie) opiera się na różnych formach etycznego dualizmu (czy polimoralizmu). Wskazują one, że istnieją dwa typy moralności: horyzontalna i wertykalna. Moralność horyzontalna opisuje relacje między „zwykłymi” jednostkami żyjącymi w społeczeństwie – w większości wypadków uznaje się, że w takich horyzontalnych relacjach jednostki powinny kierować się zasadą nieagresji (jest to jeden z powodów, dla których tak trudno jest polemizować z libertariańską teorią moralną, jest ona bowiem podstawą praktycznie wszystkich systemów moralnych, jakie istnieją). Jednak relacje między państwem (władzą) a jednostkami – relacje wertykalne – wyłączone są spod zasad, które obowiązują jednostki w typowych relacjach międzyludzkich. Przykładowo, państwo ma prawo nakładać na obywateli podatki, wiązać ich regulacjami ekonomicznymi, zabraniać im różnego rodzaju nieagresywnych aktywności itd. – gdyby takich działań próbowała dopuścić się jednostka, byłaby uznana za agresora. Libertarianie nie widzą powodu, by powoływać do istnienia dwie odmienne moralności. Moralność, by być moralnością, musi mieć charakter uniwersalny. Jeśli pojedynczemu obywatelowi nie wolno kraść, dlaczego wolno robić to urzędowi skarbowemu pod pozorem zbierania podatków? Jeśli nie wolno mi kogoś zniewolić, dlaczego wolno robić to państwu pod nazwą poboru wojskowego? Jeśli nie wolno mi zabraniać innym osobom żyć tak, jak mają ochotę – dlaczego wolno robić to rządowi w ramach systemu regulacji ekonomicznych, licencji i pozwoleń? Na wszystkie te pytania libertarianie odpowiadają przez wskazanie, że nie ma różnicy, czy przemoc inicjowana jest przez jednostkę, czy przez państwo, w każdym wypadku jest ona godna potępienia.

Negatywny charakter zasady nieagresji. Moralność prywatna
Przez negatywny charakter zasady nieagresji (zawarty w słowach „nikt nie ma prawa”) rozumiem, że wskazuje ona jedynie, jakie działania są bezwględnie zakazane, nie tworzy zaś żadnego „pozytywnego” programu działania – nie mówi, co robić, by być dobrym czy moralnym człowiekiem. Libertariańska teoria moralna nie oferuje całościowej teorii moralnej, a jedynie odpowiedź na pytanie o warunki, w których wolno nam użyć przemocy. Libertarianizm nie wypowiada się na przykład na temat tego, czy prostytucja, branie narkotyków bądź obrażanie czyichś uczuć religijnych jest moralne, pozwala on jedynie odpowiedzieć na pytanie – czy wobec osób podejmujących takie aktywności, wolno nam użyć przemocy fizycznej? Ponieważ zachowania te nie stanowią inicjacji przemocy, odpowiedź ta jest negatywna.

Ze względu na negatywny charakter zasady nieagresji, większość libertarian łączy moralność libertariańską z innymi formami moralności. Te, wykraczające poza zasadę nieagresji, formy moralności określić można jako moralność prywatną. Moralność prywatna to zespół zasad moralnych, które narzucamy sobie i które możemy promować w społeczności za pomocą perswazji bądź przykładu, ale których nie próbujemy narzucać innym osobom za pomocą przemocy. Przykładowo, libertarianin może wyznawać tradycyjne wartości i krytykować tych, którzy od nich odchodzą, ale nie będzie próbował wykorzystywać państwa, by przymusić innych do podzielania jego zapatrywań na to, jak należy przeżyć swoje życie.

Parę zastrzeżeń
Wśród libertarian toczy się spór, czy zasada nieagresji ma charakter absolutny, czy nie. Absolutyści twierdzą, że powinniśmy trzymać się jej niezależnie od sytuacji czy konsekwencji, jakie może to przynieść. Nieabsolutyści twierdzą, że istnieją sytuacje, w których zasada nieagresji nie obowiązuje. Do sytuacji takich zaliczyć można przede wszystkim sytuacje graniczne, w którym małe naruszenia prawa jakiejś osoby pozwoliłoby uratować życie innej osobie, lub sytuacje, w których restrykcyjne trzymanie się zasady nieagresji mogłoby spowodowałoby zwiększenie ilości złamań tej zasady (np. gdyby okazało się, że wprowadzenie anarchizmu spowodowałoby radykalny wzrost agresji w społeczeństwie).

Zasada nieagresji ma charakter ogólnej zasady i w konkretnych przypadkach musi być doprecyzowywana z uwzględnieniem kontekstu sytuacyjnego. Przykładowo, nie zawsze może być jasne, czy dane działanie – o którym myślimy, że konstytuuje inicjację przemocy – już się rozpoczęło. Wyobraź sobie, że ktoś idzie ulicą naprzeciwko ciebie i wyciąga pistolet. Kiedy wolno ci zacząć się przed nim bronić (samemu do niego strzelić) – gdy wyciąga coś z kieszeni, gdy podejrzewasz, że jest to pistolet, gdy widzisz dokładnie że to pistolet (co to znaczy widzieć dokładnie?), gdy do ciebie mierzy, gdy strzela czy gdy pierwsza gruda ziemi opada na wieko twej trumny? Nie istnieje żaden uniwersalny algorytm, za pomocą którego można by rozstrzygnąć tego typu wątpliwości – każdorazowo konieczne jest tu uwzględnienie warunków, w których dane zdarzenie miało miejsce.

Fakt inicjacji przemocy nie daje ofierze prawa do stosowanie dowolnie dużej ilości przemocy w ramach obrony bądź wymierzenia kary/uzyskania odszkodowania. To, jak wiele przemocy można użyć, broniąc się/karząc, doprecyzowane musi zostać na obszarze libertariańskiej teorii kary.

Podsumowanie
Podstawową zasadą moralną libertarianizmu jest zasada nieagresji, która określa, kiedy w relacjach międzyludzkich dopuszczalne jest stosowanie przemocy fizycznej. W przekonaniu libertarian przemocy wolno używać tylko w odpowiedzi na przemoc ze strony innych osób. Zasada nieagresji ma charakter uniwersalny – dotyczy nie tylko zwykłych osób, ale i tych, którzy roszczą sobie prawo do kontrolowania życia społecznego. Zasada nieagresji ma charakter negatywny, określa wyłącznie, co powinno być bezwzględnie potępione jako niemoralne, nie mówi natomiast, co jest dobre. Zasada nieagresji dotyczy zarówno ciała drugiej osoby, jak i jej własności.

64 Comments:

  1. „Pamiętać należy, że by jakieś działanie uznane mogło zostać przez libertarian za formę przemocy, spełniać musi dwa warunki – musi mieć charakter materialny (musi być formą materialnej ingerencji w ciało/własność drugiej osoby)” – czy taka idea nie jest zaprzeczeniem istnienia ludzkiej godności? Człowiek to nie tylko ciało. Wyzwiska można jeszcze zignorować, ale uważam, że każdy ma prawo bronić się przed oszczercami, którzy rozpowszechniają kłamstwa na jego temat wśród innych ludzi, mogących w nie uwierzyć. Tym bardziej, że mogą one skutkować stratami materialnymi. Myślę, że podobnie jest np. z prawem do prywatności. Szpiegowanie ludzi bez ich zgody, nawet jeśli nie narusza się przy tym ich prawa własności (np. nie wchodzi się na ich teren), jest niemoralne.

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    in the economy as individuals shed confidence in the nationwide
    currency and also began to move towards the new virtual currency called” bitcoin”.
    The very first point that you need to recognize concerning
    this subject is that there are 2 types of people who
    utilize this digital cash.

    There are basically two kinds of bitcoin based blockchains that are
    prominent these days. One is the bitcoin money
    which is in fact a fork of the bitcoin standard, while the other
    is the bitcoin testnet. bitcoin is in fact a very efficient hybridized decentralized digital money, without
    any single manager or reserve bank, which is transferred from customer to customer on the open peer to peer bitcoin network.
    Every one of these truths about the history of this exceptional technology will help
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    understand if they are having their money’s worth.
    The developers behind the bitcoin job felt that it is very important for
    the public to have an open journal such as this one,
    which they have developed the bitcoin blockchains.
    Hence, these are the fundamentals of what lags the digital money called” bitcoin”.

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  14. The Chinese government has actually released several statements concerning its
    strategies to manage virtual money such as the widely made use of bitcoin.
    Recently, China limited some residential capital gains and also cross-border
    asset transfers made by citizens to take advantage of the value of the nationwide currency.
    In late January, the government circulated a declaration that
    investors should trade according to the appropriate
    regulatory framework. The step followed countless report that bitcoin is a scheme developed by hackers to threaten China’s economic system.
    The federal government likewise stated that any kind of
    broker or firm entailed in virtual currency activities must register with the
    PBOC, and also all actions taken should adapt the law.

    The ongoing censorship by the Chinese government
    highlights the problem for investors in the bitcoin network to execute professions or perform financial activities.
    The repeated restrictions on financial establishments as well
    as repayment processors also highlights the danger of identifying as well as closing bitcoin-related transactions and also loopholes.
    China has not lifted the restriction on online mining
    by specific individuals, just obstructing the major bitcoin application software application from being downloaded and
    install by web customers. Some viewers expect the
    federal government to additional tighten its stance against miners, adhering to the recent termination of an on-line mining forum project.

    The former system improves privacy and security since it links a
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    others from tracking their task. The latter system, based on cryptographic proof based on previous purchases
    for which fees have currently been accepted, would significantly decrease the quantity of threat associated with the bitcoin network.

    https://justpaste.me/VesQ

  15. How Dump Monitor Helps You Protect Yourself From Spam
    A Paste is data that’s been pasted on to a website designed in order to share content like
    pastes. These public pastes are often used by hackers to
    their power to secretly, easily and quickly share sensitive and important information like password
    files and financial numbers stolen during cyber-crimes.
    These public pastes also give online users the ability of
    commenting or posting a message to another online user by using this form of „paste”.
    By using this easy process, hackers can steal this person’s private information and post it on a website without them knowing about it.

    For anyone who has ever gone through spam emails or
    other unsolicited email found on the Internet, you know how annoying these pastes can be.

    You might also have experienced a time when an email was sent to you that seemed to be from someone you knew, but there was no way for you to verify the sender’s identity or location. This can occur when hackers use this paste to breach databases of large companies and reveal the personal data of these people.
    It can also happen to you when hackers use pastes to breach databases and reveal
    your personal details to spammers or other internet predators.

    To protect yourself from any of these breaches, it’s best to opt for a free service that gives you the option to either delete and paste securely from one’s own computer.
    Dump Monitor is a web based service that allows you to view a public pastebin log to see the pastes that
    other people have pasted from your account. It will also allow you to log into your account and
    remove any of the pastes that you don’t want other people to see.
    Dump Monitor also allows you to determine
    the number of pastes that have been erased since your last login and the reason why.

  16. Protecting E-Commerce Sites From a Hacker
    To make the surface of a document look more professional, many companies use pastes.
    Although pastes may not have the same visual effect as
    handmade designs or embossing, they are still widely used and
    can create an impressive effect in many cases.
    The best way to achieve the professional look is to
    use a paste that contains a high amount of glue.

    P Paste A popular type of paste for presentations and other tasks is hibp pastes.
    Hibp pastes are thick, white ointment-like pastes that contain a high percentage of
    glue. They vary greatly in consistency, being
    either heavier or lighter than ointment-based pastes, and as such are stiffer and thicker.

    In addition to being stiffer, hibp pastes tend to be
    more dense, which gives them a better ability to hide
    defects and stay put longer.

    Personal information may be transmitted via hibp
    pastes. Because of the heavy nature of the paste, many businesses choose to only provide information on their company website or
    to partners through these pastes. This allows those who need the personal information to access it without compromising the company’s website, allowing them to still sell products or communicate with past
    and current customers. The information that can be transmitted through hibp pastes includes full names, email addresses, contact information, address history, and recent additions to the company’s database.

    As a result, many of the most popular and reliable pasting services do not advertise their ability to
    transmit personal information; this makes it much more difficult for a hacker to
    obtain a client’s personal information through a paste site.

  17. The European Union’s (EU) personal privacy guard dogs, the European Information Protection Regulation (EDR),
    together with the European Union’s (EU’s) General Data defense Policy (GDR) have
    currently united to enforce tougher policies on Participant States’ compliance with their data
    protection legislation when it pertains to logging in to their protected data.
    They did this to make sure that the benefits of the single market would be well served by the
    guidelines and also criteria of the Union’s information security regulation. While
    we understand the relevance of encouraging online customers to continue to be within the confines of the EU, we additionally acknowledge that
    some countries beyond the EU can still abuse its protections.
    This is why the intro of login in europe.

    When an individual requests for their customer name and password in an EU
    country, the web site will ask for that details utilizing
    the country’s given name and with the nation’s identity verified.
    If the inquired can not be confirmed, the web site will after that request for the individual’s e-mail address.
    When the user’s e-mail address is confirmed,
    the web site will then ask for that person’s postal address.
    If that address is not legitimate or the individual is not a resident of
    the nation asking for the details, then the website will
    simply ask the customer to login in europe. Now, the issue of a non-resident attempting
    to login in europe.

    It is easy for a non-resident to login in europe.
    If a customer locates that the internet site can not verify his or
    her country of home, then the website is going against the country’s personal privacy policies and also can get into serious legal
    issues for the organization.

  18. How Dump Monitor Helps You Protect Yourself From Spam
    A Paste is data that’s been pasted on to a website designed in order
    to share content like pastes. These public pastes are often used by hackers to their power to secretly, easily and quickly
    share sensitive and important information like password
    files and financial numbers stolen during cyber-crimes. These
    public pastes also give online users the ability of commenting or posting a message to
    another online user by using this form of „paste”. By using this easy process, hackers can steal this person’s private information and post it on a website without
    them knowing about it.

    For anyone who has ever gone through spam emails or other unsolicited email found on the Internet, you know how annoying
    these pastes can be. You might also have experienced a time when an email was sent to you that seemed to be from someone you knew, but there was no way for you to
    verify the sender’s identity or location. This can occur when hackers use this paste to breach
    databases of large companies and reveal the personal data of these people.
    It can also happen to you when hackers use pastes to breach databases and reveal
    your personal details to spammers or other internet predators.

    To protect yourself from any of these breaches,
    it’s best to opt for a free service that gives you the option to either delete and paste securely from one’s
    own computer. Dump Monitor is a web based service that allows
    you to view a public pastebin log to see the pastes
    that other people have pasted from your account. It will
    also allow you to log into your account and remove any of the pastes that you don’t want other people to see.
    Dump Monitor also allows you to determine the number of pastes that have been erased since your last
    login and the reason why.

  19. Using Public Pastes to Promote Your Blog
    A great way to get traffic to your web site is by using pastes.
    By having regular posts on your blog or forum, people are able to see
    your updates in a quick and easy manner. As you may have noticed, there are many times where
    someone adds you on Facebook and other social networking sites without even realizing it.
    If this happens to you, do not let it go unchecked. Send them to your pastes and share your short
    links with others using social pasting software.

    Social bookmarking tools enable users to search for and instantly open up links
    to any web page. So if a user searches for „basketball hoop” in Google and he or she types in the search
    box „basketball hoop”, then your post on your blog or webpage will appear in front
    of them and be ready for reading or printing. The great thing about this system is
    that it can be incorporated into your personal web pages so that you are able to put a custom and
    unique url for each post which makes it easier for readers to find what they are
    looking for.

    Public pastes allow users to search for something specific or just browse through a large list of
    pastes. When using public pastes, it is important that you provide the description of what the post is about as well as a title.
    The title of your post will be what appears
    under the public post while the domain names should be provided to make
    it easy for people to insert them into their search engines.
    To save time with domain searches, it’s recommended that you submit your domain name and
    paste the paste code on your public post which will ensure that your domain name will appear along
    with the post title and description.

  20. How Dump Monitor Helps You Protect Yourself From Spam
    A Paste is data that’s been pasted on to a website designed in order to share content like pastes.
    These public pastes are often used by hackers to their
    power to secretly, easily and quickly share sensitive and important information like password files
    and financial numbers stolen during cyber-crimes. These public pastes also give online users the ability of
    commenting or posting a message to another online user by using this form of „paste”.
    By using this easy process, hackers can steal this person’s private information and post it on a website
    without them knowing about it.

    For anyone who has ever gone through spam emails or other
    unsolicited email found on the Internet, you know how annoying
    these pastes can be. You might also have experienced a time when an email was sent to you that seemed to be from someone you knew,
    but there was no way for you to verify the sender’s identity or location. This can occur when hackers use this paste
    to breach databases of large companies and reveal the personal data of these people.
    It can also happen to you when hackers use pastes to breach databases and reveal your personal details to spammers or other
    internet predators.

    To protect yourself from any of these breaches, it’s best to opt for a free service that gives you the option to either delete and paste
    securely from one’s own computer. Dump Monitor is a web based service that allows you to view a public pastebin log to see the
    pastes that other people have pasted from your account.
    It will also allow you to log into your account and remove any of the pastes that
    you don’t want other people to see. Dump Monitor also allows you
    to determine the number of pastes that have been erased since your last login and the reason why.

  21. Protecting E-Commerce Sites From a Hacker
    To make the surface of a document look more professional, many companies use pastes.

    Although pastes may not have the same visual effect as handmade designs or embossing, they
    are still widely used and can create an impressive effect
    in many cases. The best way to achieve the professional look is to
    use a paste that contains a high amount of glue.

    P Paste A popular type of paste for presentations and other tasks
    is hibp pastes. Hibp pastes are thick, white ointment-like pastes
    that contain a high percentage of glue. They vary greatly in consistency, being either heavier or lighter than ointment-based pastes, and as such are stiffer and thicker.
    In addition to being stiffer, hibp pastes tend to be more dense,
    which gives them a better ability to hide defects and stay put longer.

    Personal information may be transmitted via hibp pastes. Because of the heavy nature of
    the paste, many businesses choose to only provide information on their company
    website or to partners through these pastes. This allows
    those who need the personal information to access
    it without compromising the company’s website, allowing them
    to still sell products or communicate with past and current customers.
    The information that can be transmitted through
    hibp pastes includes full names, email addresses, contact information,
    address history, and recent additions to the company’s database.
    As a result, many of the most popular and reliable pasting services do not advertise their ability to transmit personal information; this makes it much more
    difficult for a hacker to obtain a client’s personal information through
    a paste site.

  22. Using Public Pastes to Promote Your Blog
    A great way to get traffic to your web site is by
    using pastes. By having regular posts on your blog or forum, people are
    able to see your updates in a quick and easy manner.
    As you may have noticed, there are many times where someone adds
    you on Facebook and other social networking sites without even realizing
    it. If this happens to you, do not let it go unchecked.
    Send them to your pastes and share your short links with others using social pasting software.

    Social bookmarking tools enable users to search
    for and instantly open up links to any web page.
    So if a user searches for „basketball hoop” in Google and he or
    she types in the search box „basketball hoop”, then your post on your blog or webpage will appear in front
    of them and be ready for reading or printing.
    The great thing about this system is that it can be incorporated into your personal web
    pages so that you are able to put a custom and unique url for each post which makes it easier for readers to find what they are looking for.

    Public pastes allow users to search for something specific or just browse
    through a large list of pastes. When using public pastes, it is important that you provide the description of what the post is about as
    well as a title. The title of your post will be what appears under the public post
    while the domain names should be provided to make it easy for people
    to insert them into their search engines. To save
    time with domain searches, it’s recommended that you submit your domain name and paste the paste code on your public post which will ensure that your domain name will appear along with
    the post title and description.

  23. Protecting E-Commerce Sites From a Hacker
    To make the surface of a document look more professional, many companies use pastes.
    Although pastes may not have the same visual effect as handmade designs or embossing, they are still
    widely used and can create an impressive effect in many cases.

    The best way to achieve the professional look is to use
    a paste that contains a high amount of glue.

    P Paste A popular type of paste for presentations and other tasks is
    hibp pastes. Hibp pastes are thick, white ointment-like pastes that contain a high percentage of glue.
    They vary greatly in consistency, being either heavier or lighter than ointment-based pastes,
    and as such are stiffer and thicker. In addition to being stiffer, hibp pastes tend
    to be more dense, which gives them a better ability to hide defects and stay put longer.

    Personal information may be transmitted via hibp pastes.
    Because of the heavy nature of the paste, many businesses choose to only provide
    information on their company website or to partners through these pastes.

    This allows those who need the personal information to access it without compromising the company’s website,
    allowing them to still sell products or communicate with past and current
    customers. The information that can be transmitted through hibp pastes includes full names, email addresses, contact information, address history, and recent additions
    to the company’s database. As a result, many of the most popular and reliable
    pasting services do not advertise their ability to transmit personal information; this makes it much
    more difficult for a hacker to obtain a client’s personal information through a paste site.

  24. The truth is that the Chinese government does not have a very open plan when it comes
    to their mining tasks in the field, and also the truth that
    the federal government firmly controls foreign investment in the financial
    market definitely does not aid points. China’s government is specifically tight-lipped when it comes
    to reviewing their role in this sector, yet it appears like they do not desire to
    compromise their capability to benefit from this market.

    In terms of what these 2 nations are doing in a different way, there actually isn’t much of a distinction. They both make use
    of different techniques to protecting the block chain, but the manner in which China’s
    federal government tackles this is a little different.
    China’s main approach to safeguarding the network is via the usage of what are called „blockchain mining pools.” These are swimming pools of miners
    that are merged with each other, usually based in China, and each of them independently mines the block chain. What this suggests is that as
    opposed to the whole network being extracted at the same time, smaller sized blocks are extracted gradually, up until the whole thing
    is worn down.

    What does this have to do with exactly how these two countries go regarding seeking their
    very own objectives in the digital area? This will aid to guarantee that there
    are no issues when it comes to trading and also acquiring as well as marketing money.
    When it comes to spending in cryptosporiness, this is possibly one of the
    most vital elements.

    The truth is that the Chinese government does not have a very open plan when it
    comes to their mining tasks in the field, as well as the fact that the government
    firmly regulates foreign investment in the financial field absolutely does not assist points.
    For currently, though, it shows up as though America as well as Europe are
    the leaders when it comes to this specific task. China’s
    government is specifically tight-lipped when it comes to discussing
    their function in this sector, but it appears like they do not desire
    to endanger their capability to benefit from this market.

  25. Using Public Pastes to Promote Your Blog
    A great way to get traffic to your web site is by using pastes.

    By having regular posts on your blog or forum, people are able
    to see your updates in a quick and easy manner.
    As you may have noticed, there are many times where someone adds you on Facebook
    and other social networking sites without even realizing it.

    If this happens to you, do not let it go unchecked. Send
    them to your pastes and share your short links with others using social pasting
    software.

    Social bookmarking tools enable users to search for and instantly open up links to any web page.
    So if a user searches for „basketball hoop” in Google and he
    or she types in the search box „basketball hoop”, then your post on your blog or webpage will
    appear in front of them and be ready for reading or printing.

    The great thing about this system is that it can be incorporated into your
    personal web pages so that you are able to put a
    custom and unique url for each post which makes it easier for readers
    to find what they are looking for.

    Public pastes allow users to search for something specific or just browse
    through a large list of pastes. When using public pastes, it is important
    that you provide the description of what the post is about as
    well as a title. The title of your post will be what appears under the public post while the domain names should be provided to make it easy for people to insert them
    into their search engines. To save time with domain searches, it’s recommended that you submit your domain name and paste the paste code on your public post which will ensure that your
    domain name will appear along with the post title and description.

  26. Using Public Pastes to Promote Your Blog
    A great way to get traffic to your web site is by using pastes.
    By having regular posts on your blog or forum, people are able to see your updates
    in a quick and easy manner. As you may have noticed, there are many times where someone
    adds you on Facebook and other social networking sites without even realizing it.

    If this happens to you, do not let it go unchecked. Send them to your pastes and share your short links with others using social pasting software.

    Social bookmarking tools enable users to search for and instantly open up links to any web page.

    So if a user searches for „basketball hoop” in Google and he or she types in the
    search box „basketball hoop”, then your post on your blog or webpage will appear in front of them and be ready for reading or printing.

    The great thing about this system is that it can be incorporated into your personal web pages so
    that you are able to put a custom and unique url for each post which makes it
    easier for readers to find what they are looking for.

    Public pastes allow users to search for something
    specific or just browse through a large list of pastes.
    When using public pastes, it is important that
    you provide the description of what the post is about as
    well as a title. The title of your post will
    be what appears under the public post while the domain names should be provided to make it easy for
    people to insert them into their search engines.
    To save time with domain searches, it’s recommended that you submit your domain name and paste
    the paste code on your public post which will ensure that your domain name will appear along with the post title and description.

  27. How Dump Monitor Helps You Protect Yourself From Spam
    A Paste is data that’s been pasted on to a website designed in order to share content like pastes.
    These public pastes are often used by hackers to their
    power to secretly, easily and quickly share sensitive and
    important information like password files and financial
    numbers stolen during cyber-crimes. These public pastes also give online users the ability of commenting
    or posting a message to another online user by using this form of „paste”.
    By using this easy process, hackers can steal this
    person’s private information and post it on a website without them knowing about it.

    For anyone who has ever gone through spam emails or other unsolicited email found on the Internet,
    you know how annoying these pastes can be. You might also
    have experienced a time when an email was sent to you that seemed to be from someone you knew,
    but there was no way for you to verify the sender’s identity or location. This can occur when hackers use this paste to
    breach databases of large companies and reveal the personal data of
    these people. It can also happen to you when hackers use pastes to breach databases
    and reveal your personal details to spammers or other internet predators.

    To protect yourself from any of these breaches, it’s best to opt for a free
    service that gives you the option to either delete and paste securely from one’s own computer.
    Dump Monitor is a web based service that allows you to view a public pastebin log to
    see the pastes that other people have pasted from your account.
    It will also allow you to log into your account and remove any of the pastes that you don’t want other people to see.
    Dump Monitor also allows you to determine the number of pastes that have been erased since your last login and the reason why.

  28. Protecting E-Commerce Sites From a Hacker
    To make the surface of a document look more professional, many companies use pastes.
    Although pastes may not have the same visual effect as handmade designs or embossing, they are
    still widely used and can create an impressive effect in many cases.
    The best way to achieve the professional look is to use a paste that contains a
    high amount of glue.

    P Paste A popular type of paste for presentations and other tasks is hibp pastes.

    Hibp pastes are thick, white ointment-like pastes that contain a high percentage of glue.
    They vary greatly in consistency, being either heavier or lighter than ointment-based
    pastes, and as such are stiffer and thicker. In addition to being stiffer, hibp pastes tend to be more dense, which gives them a
    better ability to hide defects and stay put longer.

    Personal information may be transmitted via hibp pastes.
    Because of the heavy nature of the paste, many businesses choose
    to only provide information on their company website or to partners through these
    pastes. This allows those who need the personal information to access it without
    compromising the company’s website, allowing them to still sell products or communicate with past and current customers.
    The information that can be transmitted through hibp pastes includes full names,
    email addresses, contact information, address history,
    and recent additions to the company’s database. As a result,
    many of the most popular and reliable pasting services do not advertise their ability to transmit personal information; this
    makes it much more difficult for a hacker to obtain a client’s personal information through a paste site.

  29. The CA is the” issuer of the exclusive secret made use of to create the user’s password and also individual name”, according to Opera’s programmers.
    They further clarified that they consistently release CA Certificates to make certain the integrity of internet browser environments and to apply numerous rules
    set out by the web browser.

    The logged demand can be viewed as an asynchronous verification failing due to the
    fact that it shows a deadly server error. The customer side calls for the Asynchronous Transportation procedure to produce the token, yet the internet browser does not
    identify the inside man’s requests for it, bring about the denial
    of the request. As mentioned previously, the internet browser sends out an HTTP demand to
    the transport; nevertheless, the feedback may be obstructed prior to
    it reaches the inside man. When this happens, the internet browser will certainly then show the message „An effective response can not be returned”.

    The trouble is made worse by the reality that Opera still
    uses the Session Initiation Procedure (ISP) to develop the
    identification platform, regardless of the fact that the application is using the OAuth2 protocol.
    The resulting circumstance is the accessibility token being signed
    up numerous times by the user.

  30. How Dump Monitor Helps You Protect Yourself From Spam
    A Paste is data that’s been pasted on to a website designed in order
    to share content like pastes. These public pastes are often used by hackers to their power to secretly, easily and quickly share sensitive and important
    information like password files and financial numbers stolen during cyber-crimes.
    These public pastes also give online users the ability of commenting or posting a
    message to another online user by using this form of „paste”.

    By using this easy process, hackers can steal this person’s private information and post it on a website without
    them knowing about it.

    For anyone who has ever gone through spam emails or other unsolicited
    email found on the Internet, you know how annoying these pastes can be.
    You might also have experienced a time when an email was sent to you that seemed to be from someone you knew, but there
    was no way for you to verify the sender’s identity or location. This
    can occur when hackers use this paste to breach databases of large companies and reveal the personal data
    of these people. It can also happen to you when hackers use pastes to breach databases and reveal your personal details
    to spammers or other internet predators.

    To protect yourself from any of these breaches, it’s best to
    opt for a free service that gives you the option to either delete and paste securely from one’s own computer.
    Dump Monitor is a web based service that allows you
    to view a public pastebin log to see the pastes that other people have pasted from your account.
    It will also allow you to log into your account and remove any of the pastes that you don’t want other
    people to see. Dump Monitor also allows you to
    determine the number of pastes that have been erased since your
    last login and the reason why.

  31. Using Public Pastes to Promote Your Blog
    A great way to get traffic to your web site
    is by using pastes. By having regular posts on your blog or forum, people are able to
    see your updates in a quick and easy manner. As you may have noticed, there are many times
    where someone adds you on Facebook and other social networking sites without even realizing it.
    If this happens to you, do not let it go unchecked.

    Send them to your pastes and share your short links with others using social pasting software.

    Social bookmarking tools enable users to search for and
    instantly open up links to any web page. So if a user searches for „basketball hoop” in Google and he or she types
    in the search box „basketball hoop”, then your post on your
    blog or webpage will appear in front of them and be ready for
    reading or printing. The great thing about this system is that it can be
    incorporated into your personal web pages so that
    you are able to put a custom and unique url for each post which makes it
    easier for readers to find what they are looking for.

    Public pastes allow users to search for something specific
    or just browse through a large list of pastes.
    When using public pastes, it is important that you provide the description of what the post is about as well as
    a title. The title of your post will be what appears under the public
    post while the domain names should be provided to make it easy for people to insert them into their
    search engines. To save time with domain searches, it’s recommended that you submit your domain name and
    paste the paste code on your public post which will ensure that your domain name will appear along with the post
    title and description.

  32. The scroll bar in the jerk chat home window is an extremely crucial device for streaming.
    There are numerous reasons for that. First of all the scroll bar enables you to scroll
    up as well as down via the chat. This allows
    you to see what the various other individuals are stating.

    There is additionally an alternative button on the leading right edge of the chat home windows that allows you to detach from your
    conversation partner. You can pick a custom-made hotkey in order to attach and also separate from
    the web server as quickly as feasible.

    The problem with the scroll bar nevertheless
    is that if there isn’t any type of individual in the chat network as well as then they begin inputting they will create the conversation bar to end up being corrupted.
    When the other individuals attempt to play on the web server,
    it will scroll the conversation back down.

    This will make it to ensure that the individual who clicked
    on the link button is currently stuck on the top of the web
    server. This suggests that they can’t return to the base or pick one more hotkey.

    There are two different ways to fix this issue. The initial approach is to ensure that there are other individuals on the web server who have signed up with at the very same time that
    you have. The 2nd method is to download and also mount a 3rd party program such as the OBS Server.

  33. Similar to any new innovation, Amazon’s newest shopping solution, called Amazon Groove, has actually seen its fair share of
    criticism. The reality that this is an in-app acquisition indicates that
    all purchases come straight to your savings account without the need to kind out a charge card number or anything
    else. This system is becoming the method of consumers all over since it makes
    shopping simpler than ever previously.

    To utilize Amazon.com Groove, merely gain access to the app via
    the Amazon.com web site, kind in your delivery address
    and also any other information you ‚d such as and you’re
    all set. Amazon Groove is additionally compatible with major credit cards, PayPal
    as well as of training course, your bank account.

    With Amazon.com Groove, there is no requirement to worry yourself with worrying
    concerning extra fees for shipping or taking care of costs as they will certainly be taken out of
    your financial institution account upon checkout.
    After you have actually established up your account and authorized up for an amazon.com gift card, all
    you’ll have to do is choose the card you wish to get, pay with
    that very same Amazon account as well as off you go!

  34. Using Public Pastes to Promote Your Blog
    A great way to get traffic to your web site is by
    using pastes. By having regular posts on your blog or forum, people are able to see your updates in a
    quick and easy manner. As you may have noticed,
    there are many times where someone adds you on Facebook and other social networking sites without even realizing it.

    If this happens to you, do not let it go unchecked. Send them to your pastes and share your short links with
    others using social pasting software.

    Social bookmarking tools enable users to search for and
    instantly open up links to any web page. So if a user searches for „basketball hoop” in Google and he or she types
    in the search box „basketball hoop”, then your post on your blog or webpage will appear in front of them
    and be ready for reading or printing. The great thing about this system is that it can be incorporated into your personal web pages so that you are able to put a custom and unique url for
    each post which makes it easier for readers to find what they are looking for.

    Public pastes allow users to search for something specific or just browse through a large list of pastes.
    When using public pastes, it is important that
    you provide the description of what the post is about as well as a
    title. The title of your post will be what appears under the public post while
    the domain names should be provided to make it easy for people to insert
    them into their search engines. To save time with domain searches, it’s recommended that you submit your domain name and
    paste the paste code on your public post which will ensure that your domain name will appear along with the post title and description.

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